Public key authenticated encryption and why you want it (Part III)

In Part I, we saw that authenticated encryption is usually the security goal you want in both the symmetric and public key settings. In Part II, we then looked at some ways of achieving public key authenticated encryption (PKAE), and discovered that it is not straightforward to build from separate signing and encryption methods, but it is relatively simple for Diffie-Hellman. In this final part, we will look at how existing standards approach the problem and how they could be improved.

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Public key authenticated encryption and why you want it (Part II)

In Part I, I made the argument that even when using public key cryptography you almost always want authenticated encryption. In this second part, we’ll look at how you can actually achieve public key authenticated encryption (PKAE) from commonly available building blocks. We will concentrate only on approaches that do not require an interactive protocol. (Updated 12th January 2019 to add a description of a NIST-approved key-agreement mode that achieves PKAE).

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Public key authenticated encryption and why you want it (Part I)

If you read or watch any recent tutorial on symmetric (or “secret key”) cryptography, one lesson should be clear: in 2018 if you want to encrypt something you’d better use authenticated encryption. This not only hides the content of a message, but also ensures that the message was sent by one of the parties that has access to the shared secret key and that it hasn’t been tampered with. It turns out that without these additional guarantees (integrity and authenticity), the contents of a message often does not remain secret for long either. Continue reading “Public key authenticated encryption and why you want it (Part I)”

Key-driven cryptographic agility

One of the criticisms of the JOSE/JWT standards is that they give an attacker too much flexibility, by allowing them to specify how a message should be processed. In particular, the standard “alg” header tells the recipient what cryptographic algorithm was used to sign or encrypt the contents. Letting the attacker chose the algorithm can lead to disastrous security vulnerabilities. Continue reading “Key-driven cryptographic agility”

A small tweak to checked exceptions

Almost everyone hates Java’s checked exceptions. Even those that still use them will admit that they lead to a lot of boilerplate. Everyone has code along the following lines: Continue reading “A small tweak to checked exceptions”

Moving away from UUIDs

If you need an unguessable random string (for a session cookie or access token, for example), it can be tempting to reach for a random UUID, which looks like this:

 88cf3e49-e28e-4c0e-b95f-6a68a785a89d

This is a 128-bit value formatted as 36 hexadecimal digits separated by hyphens. In Java and most other programming languages, these are very simple to generate:


import java.util.UUID;


String id = UUID.randomUUID().toString();

Under the hood this uses a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG), so the IDs generated are pretty unique. However, there are some downsides to using random UUIDs that make them less useful than they first appear. In this note I will describe them and what I suggest using instead.

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Java KeyStores – the gory details

Java KeyStores are used to store key material and associated certificates in an encrypted and integrity protected fashion. Like all things Java, this mechanism is pluggable and so there exist a variety of different options. There are lots of articles out there that describe the different types and how you can initialise them, load keys and certificates, etc. However, there is a lack of detailed technical information about exactly how these keystores store and protect your key material. This post attempts to gather those important details in one place for the most common KeyStores.
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So how *do* you validate (NIST) ECDH public keys?

Updated 20th July 2017 to clarify notation for the point of infinity. A previous version used the symbol 0 (zero) rather than O, which may have been confusing.

Updated 28th May 2020: in step 4 of the full validation check, n is the order of the prime sub-group defined by the generator point G, not the order of the curve itself. This is critical for security if you are performing this check because small-order points will satisfy the order of the curve (which is h * n), but not the order of G.

In the wake of the recent critical security vulnerabilities in some JOSE/JWT libraries around ECDH public key validation, a number of implementations scrambled to implement specific validation of public keys to eliminate these attacks. But how do we know whether these checks are sufficient? Is there any guidance on what checks should be performed? The answer is yes, but it can be a bit hard tracking down exactly what validation needs to be done in which cases. For modern elliptic curve schemes like X25519 and Ed25519, there is some debate over whether validation should be performed at all in the basic primitive implementations, as the curve eliminates some of the issues while high-level protocols can be designed to eliminate others. However, for the NIST standard curves used in JOSE, the question is more clear cut: it is absolutely critical that public keys are correctly validated, as evidenced by the linked security alert.

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Updating OpenAM’s encryption

Updated 30th March 2017 to reflect updated information (see comments), add additional links and add some clarifying text about why misuse-resistance is useful.

With the impending release of the ForgeRock Identity Platform, I thought I’d spend some time writing up a few of the bits of OpenAM 14 that I was directly involved with creating. One of my last acts before leaving FR to go solo, was to put in place the first phase of modernising AM’s aging system credential encryption scheme. Before I start, I should say that this encryption scheme is not used for encrypting user passwords (which are hashed by the LDAP user store, not AM). Instead, this scheme is used for encrypting various system credentials (passwords for SMTP servers, HMAC shared secrets, etc) in the config store and in exported system configurations and in a few other places.

The original (and still default) encryption method was first mentioned in Dante’s Inferno. Actually it dates from the original iPlanet codebase from the mid-90s, and uses correspondingly ancient cryptographic algorithms (MD5 and DES). It is best to regard it as providing only limited obfuscation of credentials, rather than any true security guarantees, and the advice has always been to secure the config store by traditional means (TLS, access controls) rather than rely on this encryption. Still, we can do much better than this now, so AM 14 ships with a new AESWrapEncryption scheme that provides significantly improved security:

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