Key-driven cryptographic agility

One of the criticisms of the JOSE/JWT standards is that they give an attacker too much flexibility, by allowing them to specify how a message should be processed. In particular, the standard “alg” header tells the recipient what cryptographic algorithm was used to sign or encrypt the contents. Letting the attacker chose the algorithm can lead to disastrous security vulnerabilities. Continue reading “Key-driven cryptographic agility”

A small tweak to checked exceptions

Almost everyone hates Java’s checked exceptions. Even those that still use them will admit that they lead to a lot of boilerplate. Everyone has code along the following lines: Continue reading “A small tweak to checked exceptions”

Moving away from UUIDs

If you need an unguessable random string (for a session cookie or access token, for example), it can be tempting to reach for a random UUID, which looks like this:

 88cf3e49-e28e-4c0e-b95f-6a68a785a89d

This is a 128-bit value formatted as 36 hexadecimal digits separated by hyphens. In Java and most other programming languages, these are very simple to generate:


import java.util.UUID;


String id = UUID.randomUUID().toString();

Under the hood this uses a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG), so the IDs generated are pretty unique. However, there are some downsides to using random UUIDs that make them less useful than they first appear. In this note I will describe them and what I suggest using instead.

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Java KeyStores – the gory details

Java KeyStores are used to store key material and associated certificates in an encrypted and integrity protected fashion. Like all things Java, this mechanism is pluggable and so there exist a variety of different options. There are lots of articles out there that describe the different types and how you can initialise them, load keys and certificates, etc. However, there is a lack of detailed technical information about exactly how these keystores store and protect your key material. This post attempts to gather those important details in one place for the most common KeyStores.
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So how *do* you validate (NIST) ECDH public keys?

Updated 20th July 2017 to clarify notation for the point of infinity. A previous version used the symbol 0 (zero) rather than O, which may have been confusing

In the wake of the recent critical security vulnerabilities in some JOSE/JWT libraries around ECDH public key validation, a number of implementations scrambled to implement specific validation of public keys to eliminate these attacks. But how do we know whether these checks are sufficient? Is there any guidance on what checks should be performed? The answer is yes, but it can be a bit hard tracking down exactly what validation needs to be done in which cases. For modern elliptic curve schemes like X25519 and Ed25519, there is some debate over whether validation should be performed at all in the basic primitive implementations, as the curve eliminates some of the issues while high-level protocols can be designed to eliminate others. However, for the NIST standard curves used in JOSE, the question is more clear cut: it is absolutely critical that public keys are correctly validated, as evidenced by the linked security alert.

Continue reading “So how *do* you validate (NIST) ECDH public keys?”

Updating OpenAM’s encryption

Updated 30th March 2017 to reflect updated information (see comments), add additional links and add some clarifying text about why misuse-resistance is useful.

With the impending release of the ForgeRock Identity Platform, I thought I’d spend some time writing up a few of the bits of OpenAM 14 that I was directly involved with creating. One of my last acts before leaving FR to go solo, was to put in place the first phase of modernising AM’s aging system credential encryption scheme. Before I start, I should say that this encryption scheme is not used for encrypting user passwords (which are hashed by the LDAP user store, not AM). Instead, this scheme is used for encrypting various system credentials (passwords for SMTP servers, HMAC shared secrets, etc) in the config store and in exported system configurations and in a few other places.

The original (and still default) encryption method was first mentioned in Dante’s Inferno. Actually it dates from the original iPlanet codebase from the mid-90s, and uses correspondingly ancient cryptographic algorithms (MD5 and DES). It is best to regard it as providing only limited obfuscation of credentials, rather than any true security guarantees, and the advice has always been to secure the config store by traditional means (TLS, access controls) rather than rely on this encryption. Still, we can do much better than this now, so AM 14 ships with a new AESWrapEncryption scheme that provides significantly improved security:

Continue reading “Updating OpenAM’s encryption”